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SOC 2 Report – Trust Services Criteria and Categories

The System and Organization Controls (SOC) 2 Report will be performed in accordance with AT-C 205 (formerly under AT-101) and based upon the Trust Services Principles, with the ability to test and report on the design (Type I) and operating (Type II) effectiveness of a service organization’s controls (just like SOC 1 / SSAE 18). The SOC 2 report focuses on a business’s non-financial reporting controls as they relate to security, availability, processing integrity, confidentiality, and privacy of a system, as opposed to SOC 1/SSAE 18 which is focused on the financial reporting controls.

The Trust Service Principles which SOC 2 is based upon are modeled around four broad areas: Policies, Communications, Procedures, and Monitoring. Each of the principles have defined criteria (controls) which must be met to demonstrate adherence to the principles and produce an unqualified opinion (no significant exceptions found during your audit). The great thing about the trust principles is that the criteria businesses must meet are predefined, making it easier for business owners to know what compliance needs are required and for users of the report to read and assess the adequacy.

Many entities outsource tasks or entire functions to service organizations that operate, collect, process, transmit, store, organize, maintain and dispose of information for user entities. SOC 2 was put in place to address demands in the marketplace for assurance over non-financial controls to prevent SOC 1 from being misused just like SAS 70 was.

Did you know? A business isn’t required to address all the principles, the reviews can be limited only to the principles that are relevant to the outsourced service being performed. Some example industries that might have a need for a SOC 2 include: SaaS Providers, Data Center/ Colocations, Document Production, and Data Analytics providers.

SOC 3 Report – WebTrust and SysTrust

The SOC 3 Report , just like SOC 2, is based upon the Trust Service Principles and performed under AT101, the difference being that a SOC 3 Report can be freely distributed (general use) and only reports on if the entity has achieved the Trust Services criteria or not (no description of tests and results or opinion on description of the system). The lack of a detailed report requires that a SOC 3 be performed as a Type II, unlike SOC 1 and SOC 2 where there is a Type I option. SOC 3 reports can be issued on one or multiple Trust Services principles (security, availability, processing integrity, confidentiality and privacy) and allow the organization to place a seal on their website upon successful completion.

The Trust Service Principles were designed with a focus on e-commerce systems due to the amount of private/confidential/financial information that flows across the internet daily. When a customer processes a transaction (online retailer), builds a business on your service (SaaS providers), or submits private information, they want to know best practices are being followed by the company to guard against security leaks, lost sales, and damaged data. The most common reports based upon the trust principles are referred to as WebTrust and SysTrust.

The SysTrust review encompasses a combination of the following principles:

  • Security: The system is protected against unauthorized access (both physical and logical).
  • Availability: The system is available for operation and use as committed or agreed.
  • Processing Integrity: System processing is complete, accurate, timely, and authorized.
  • Confidentiality: Information designated as confidential is protected as committed or agreed.

The WebTrust certification can fall into the following four categories:

  • WebTrust. The scope of the engagement includes any combination of the trust principles and criteria .
  • WebTrust Online Privacy. The scope of the engagement is based upon the online privacy principle and criteria.
  • WebTrust Consumer Protection. The scope of the engagement is based upon the processing integrity and relevant online privacy principles and criteria.
  • WebTrust for Certification Authorities. The scope of the engagement is based upon specific principles and related criteria unique to certification authorities.